Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention


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What is coronary artery bypass grafting? What is heart failure? Zalunardo, N. Anemia and the heart in chronic kidney disease.

Congestive heart failure: What you need to know

MLA Newman, Tim. MediLexicon, Intl.

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Strategies for the prevention and treatment of sudden cardiac death

Message sent successfully The details of this article have been emailed on your behalf. By Tim Newman. Reviewed by Daniel Murrell, MD. Heart failure comes in many forms and has many causes.


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Fatigue and dizziness are possible symptoms of heart failure. Giving up smoking is a way to reduce the likelihood of heart failure, or slow its progression. Related coverage. Heart Disease. Additional information. This content requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: MLA Newman, Tim. Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead. Latest news Why do we forget our dreams?

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    1. Preamble

    The normal heart has four chambers. The two upper chambers are known as the atria and the two lower chambers are known as the ventricles. Electrical impulses cause the heart to beat. In individuals with Brugada syndrome, the electrical impulses between the ventricles become uncoordinated ventricular fibrillation resulting in decreased blood flow. Decreased blood flow to the brain and heart may result in fainting or sudden death.

    Brugada syndrome is named by the Spanish cardiologists Pedro Brugada and Josep Brugada who reported it as a distinct clinical syndrome in The genetic basis of Brugada syndrome was established by Ramon Brugada in An affected individual with Brugada syndrome typically begins to show symptoms around the age of Individuals with Brugada syndrome may experience irregular heartbeats ventricular arrhythmias or may have no apparent symptoms asymptomatic.

    Irregular heartbeats may cause difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness or fainting syncope , and sudden death. The severity of symptoms varies from person to person. There are some known triggers for Brugada syndrome like fever and sodium blocking drugs. SUNDS is prevalent is Southeast Asia and occurs in young individuals, who die from cardiac arrest during sleep with no apparent or identifiable cause.

    Another presentation of Brugada syndrome is sudden infant death syndrome SIDS , which is the death of a child within the first year of life without an identifiable cause. It induces a disturbed functioning of sodium channel subunits or proteins that regulate them. Dysfunction of the sodium channels leads to local conduction blockages in the heart. Most part of these mutations is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner from parents to their children. This means only a single copy of an abnormal gene is necessary for the appearance of the disease in an individual.

    Most individuals with the disease also have an affected parent. The primary gene known to be associated with Brugada syndrome is located on chromosome 3 and has been termed the SCN5A gene. This gene is responsible for the production of a protein that allows movement of sodium atoms into heart muscle cells through a channel called the sodium channel. Abnormalities in the SCN5A gene change the structure or function of the sodium channel and result in a reduction of sodium into the heart cells.

    Reduced sodium can lead to an abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden death. Some families have been reported that have relatives with Brugada syndrome and LQT3, suggesting that these conditions may be different types of the same disorder. Brugada syndrome affects both men and women, but occurs more often in men times more.

    The incidence rate is currently unknown due to its recent identification and discovery. It is estimated to affect 5 out of every 10, people. Brugada syndrome occurs worldwide, but is seen more frequently in individuals of Southeast Asia and Japan.

    Atrial Fibrillation

    According to the medical literature, Brugada syndrome may account for 4 to 12 percent of all sudden deaths and up to 20 percent of all sudden deaths in individuals with structurally normal hearts. Brugada syndrome may affect individuals of any age, but symptoms most often occur in middle-aged men around the age of The disorder was first described in the medical literature in Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of Brugada syndrome. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:.

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    Romano-Ward syndrome is an inherited heart cardiac disorder characterized by abnormalities affecting the electrical system of the heart. The severity of Romano-Ward syndrome varies greatly from patient to patient. Some individuals may have no apparent symptoms asymptomatic ; others may develop abnormally increased heartbeats tachyarrhythmias resulting in episodes of unconsciousness syncope , cardiac arrest, and potentially sudden death.

    Romano-Ward syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. For more information on this disorder, choose Romano-Ward as your search term in the Rare Disease Database. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy AC is a rare form of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which the normal muscular tissue of the right ventricle is replaced by fatty tissue. Fortunately, sudden death is not a common complication, but the risk must be considered when deciding on the treatment.

    Heart failure means that the heart muscle is not pumping blood through the body effectively. Symptoms include swelling of the legs, feet, and abdomen; feelings of shortness of breath while lying down and while exercising, and feelings of extreme fatigue. However, the results of a careful medical history, physical exam by a nurse or doctor and a number of cardiac tests can be used to make a diagnosis. There is a set of criteria that are based on the finding of certain major and minor findings on cardiac tests and on the family history.

    Treatment focuses on controlling the arrhythmias and in managing any signs or symptoms of heart failure. This device monitors the heart's rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to the heart to return it to the normal rhythm if necessary. Sometimes an electrophysiology study EP study can determine which areas of the heart are causing the abnormal rhythm, and these areas can be eliminated ablated. Individuals with signs or symptoms of heart failure are treated with medications.

    These medications include ACE inhibitors which make it easier for the heart to pump blood and diuretics which reduce symptoms of heart failure. This is rarely necessary. It is used only when the heart is very weak or when arrhythmias cannot be controlled and no other treatment is successful. In general, this will require that you see your doctor for an ICD check-up every months.

    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
    Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention

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