A broad vision of education.
- The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy.
- Academic Tools.
- The Spiritual Treasure on Canonical Prayer?
All seven intelligences are needed to live life well. Teachers, therefore, need to attend to all intelligences, not just the first two that have been their tradition concern.
Understanding entails taking knowledge gained in one setting and using it in another. Developing local and flexible programmes. Looking to morality. While there are considerable benefits to developing understanding in relation to the disciplines, something more is needed. Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and his colleagues has looked to three particular possibilities: a naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and an existential intelligence.
Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. The case for inclusion of naturalist intelligence appears pretty straightforward, the position with regard to spiritual intelligence is far more complex. As a result:. In doing so, I think it best to put aside the term spiritual , with its manifest and problematic connotations, and to speak instead of an intelligence that explores the nature of existence in its multifarious guises.
Thus, an explicit concern with spiritual or religious matters would be one variety — often the most important variety — of an existential intelligence. However, empirical evidence is sparse — and although a ninth intelligence might be attractive, Howard Gardner is not disposed to add it to the list.
He suggests that it is difficult to come to any consensual definition, but argues that it is possible to come to an understanding that takes exploration forward. If we accept the existence of a moral realm is it then possible to speak of moral intelligence? The fulfilment of key roles certainly requires a range of human intelligences — including personal, linguistic, logical and perhaps existential — but it is fundamentally a statement about the kind of person that has developed to be.
It is not, in itself, an intelligence. So it is, that Howard Gardner has added an eighth intelligence — naturalist intelligence — to his list. He has also opened the door to another possibility — especially that of existential intelligence — but the court is out on that one.
Indeed, Gardner himself has listed some of the main issues and his responses xxiii-xxvii; Here, I want to focus on three key questions that have been raised in debates. There are plenty of other questions around — but these would seem to be the most persistent :. Are the criteria Howard Gardner employs adequate?
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John White has argued that there are significant issues around the criteria that Howard Gardner employs. There are questions around the individual criteria, for example, do all intelligences involve symbol systems; how the criteria to be applied; and why these particular criteria are relevant.
Indeed, Howard Gardner himself has admitted that there is an element of subjective judgement involved. They can still point to a substantial tradition of research that demonstrates correlation between different abilities and argue for the existence of a general intelligence factor.
Howard Gardner xxiv disputes much of the evidence and argues that it is not possible, as yet, to know how far intelligences actually correlate. However, in contrast to Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg does not look strongly at the particular material that the person is processing.
Instead he looks to what he calls the componential, experiential and contextual facets of intelligence. A further set of criticisms centre around the specific intelligences that Howard Gardner identified. For example, it can be argued that musical intelligence and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are better approached as talents they do not normally need to adapt to life demands.
For the moment there is not a properly worked-through set of tests to identify and measure the different intelligences. I once thought it possible to create a set of tests of each intelligence — an intelligence-fair version to be sure — and then simply to determine the correlation between the scores on the several tests. I now believe that this can only be accomplished if someone developed several measures for each intelligence and then made sure that people were comfortable in dealing with the materials and methods used to measure each intelligence.
Gardner Howard Gardner himself has not pursued this approach because of a more general worry with such testing — that it leads to labelling and stigmatization. There are further questions around the notion of selfhood that Howard Gardner employs — something that he himself has come to recognize. It has helped a significant number of educators to question their work and to encourage them to look beyond the narrow confines of the dominant discourses of skilling, curriculum, and testing. For example, Mindy Kornhaber and her colleagues at the Project SUMIT Schools Using Multiple Intelligences Theory have examined the performance of a number of schools and concluded that there have been significant gains in respect of SATs scores, parental participation, and discipline with the schools themselves attributing this to MI theory.
They have identified the following markers that characterize schools with some success in implementing practices that attend to multiple intelligences theory. Culture: support for diverse learners and hard work.inebprodit.gq
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Acting on a value system which maintains that diverse students can learn and succeed, that learning is exciting, and that hard work by teachers is necessary. Readiness: awareness-building for implementing MI. Building staff awareness of MI and of the different ways that students learn. Tool : MI is a means to foster high quality work. Using MI as a tool to promote high quality student work rather than using the theory as an end in and of itself. Collaboration : informal and formal exchanges. Sharing ideas and constructive suggestions by the staff in formal and informal exchanges. Choice : meaningful curriculum and assessment options.
Embedding curriculum and assessment in activities that are valued both by students and the wider culture. Informal educators can usefully look at this listing in respect of their projects and agencies. The multiple intelligences themselves also provide a good focus for reflection. Arguably, informal educators have traditionally been concerned with the domains of the interpersonal and the intrapersonal, with a sprinkling of the intelligences that Howard Gardner identifies with the arts. Looking to naturalist linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences could help enhance their practice.
The second edition was published in Britain by Fontana Press. All references in this article refer to this second, 10th Anniversary, edition. A major addition to the literature of cognitive psychology being the first full length explication of multiple intelligences. Gardner, H. Gardner, Howard Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century , New York: Basic Books. Brualdi, A, C. Accessed June 15, ]. Gardner, Howard Changing Minds.
Boston MA. Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher , 18 8 , Hatch and H. Salomon ed. Distributed Cognitions. Psychological and educational considerations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kornhaber, M. Palmer ed. Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education. From Piaget to the present , London: Routledge.
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Scherer, M. Smith, L. Sternberg, R. New York: Cambridge University Press. White, J. London: Institute of Education, University of London. Williams, W. Practical intelligence for school. To cite this article : Smith, Mark K. Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education.
Here we explore the theory of multiple intelligences; why it has found a ready audience amongst educationalists; and some of the issues around its conceptualization and realization. The theory of multiple intelligences : In the heyday of the psychometric and behaviorist eras, it was generally believed that intelligence was a single entity that was inherited; and that human beings — initially a blank slate — could be trained to learn anything, provided that it was presented in an appropriate way. But there were others: My mind was really opened when I went to Harvard College and had the opportunity to study under individuals—such as psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, sociologist David Riesman, and cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner—who were creating knowledge about human beings.
An identifiable core operation or set of operations. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility.
Support from experimental psychological tasks.
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