The proposed system has been tested over different case studies to tackle distinct conditions of moving. Hybrid method of moments and physical optics MoM-PO method is implemented to analyze antenna radiation patterns around arbitrarily shaped structures, where the antenna is taken as the MoM-region and the structure as the PO-region. Human growth in diversified fields has impacted atmosphere a lot.
Every time Nature wants to balance and to tune with the universal effects. Early detection of fire has been much explored with available limited technology of satellite imaging in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Sensors spectral coverage has enhanced data acquisition to a reliable degree in those EM spectrum bands. But in changing atmospheric conditions, shadowing of objects, fire spot finding in deep forests, difference finding in fire smoke and clouds are big challenges in remote sensing via satellite imaging.
Granule of forest cover Longitude : The selection criteria of forest cover are its density and irregular geo-physical properties in the Himalayan belt. Because of greater scattering blue band is not considered in recognition duration. In deep forests infrared spectral cover has been tested in anomaly finding and linearity of smoke flume has been tested in different segments of the image. The contextual approach of fire detection is followed by the hybrid contextual approach using multispectral imagery. In hybrid approach fire pixels are separated and background is suppressed using squared Mahalanobis distance.
Chronic malnutrition stunting has been accepted a critical issue of infants under five in Pakistan, even with a significant socio-economic advancement and interventions aimed at improving it.
Although various considerable confounders of stunting have been discussed in past studies, the role of maternal formal schooling with several pathways is not signified in any study to reduce infant stunting. Therefore, this research will call for investigation the impact of mother schooling on stunting and will also compare male female infants stinting empirical estimates using latest available database of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey PDHS.
This study will justify the stunting as preferred measure for long term infant health.
As the z-score of height-for-age stunting is taken in a dichotomous form, BLRM Binary logistic regression model will be used to test the effect of mother education on chronic malnutrition controlling for other explanatory variables. With industrial development, more people are concerned about the harmful effects of the magnetic fields on the living creatures including insects.
The aims of this research are to find out the effect of exposure to the magnetic field on the bioactivity of Apis Mellifera L. The results showed that the anticancer activity of the bee venom reduced due to the exposure to the magnetic field and the chemical composition analysis revealed changes in the peptides that present in the venom.
The construction sector is the oldest and conventional project based sector.
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It is being changed by technologies disruptive influence. Construction projects involve multiple wastes, delays, overruns and inefficiency which leads to project delay, budget over consumption, decrease in quality and customer dissatisfaction. Lean construction can be included in the projects to improve the overall efficiency.
Theoretical study of lean construction has been done by many researchers but lack of study in the implementing stage of lean techniques in construction process prevents stakeholders of construction sector to adopt lean into their projects. This study was carried out to explore the effect of lean construction and applicability of various lean techniques in the construction sector. A literature review was done to understand the conventional construction practices and lean construction in the construction sector. Questionnaire survey was used to understand the impact of lean construction in the sector and to prioritize the lean techniques.
A lean management model was developed using the prioritized lean techniques and implemented in a multistoried housing project and its effectiveness has been measured.
The model has improved the work effectiveness, productivity and helped in completing the project ahead of schedule. The validity of the simulation results was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results available in the literature. This idea is further detailed in [ 40 ] along with the techniques in designing spectral sensitivities for the sake of recognition and reconstruction. Miao et al.
VISAPP - 14th International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications Abstracts
An accompanying generic demosaicing algorithm is also developed [ 43 , 44 ]. Also presented in [ 42 ] is a framework of the evaluation of MSFA design, and another similar quality metric is explained in [ 46 ].
In contrast to a complex pattern designed with, e. The spectral sensitivity of solid-state photodetectors ranges from ultraviolet through the visible region, all the way to LWIR long wavelength infrared. Thus, Hershey and Zhang [ 49 ] designed a camera integrating both visible light and non-visible light photodetectors in a single MSFA. MSFA is essentially a spatio-spectral sampling mechanism.
When consisting of sufficient types of narrowband filter elements, an MSFA mounted sensor can be used as a spectrometer. Wang et al. In remote sensing applications, the band of LWIR plays an important role in material identification.
In contrast to the conventional line-scan MSI sensor, Mercier et al. Both the optimal number and width of the spectral channels are analyzed with simulated typical background signals. An improved algorithm is later developed that takes into account the correlation between visible and NIR bands, where the optimization problem is addressed by mean of regularization [ 53 ]. Results obtained via the analysis of multispectral joint visible and NIR video for background removal [ 54 ] show that it might be of high benefit in robotics.
Following the concept of a generalized assorted pixel GAP camera where post-capture adjustment can find the best compromise among spatial resolution, spectral resolution and dynamic range, Yasuma et al. Monno et al. In the pattern, the green-like channel is distributed in the form of a quincunx, as in the Bayer CFA. Other channels are arranged following the binary-tree approach [ 41 ], so that the adaptive kernel can be estimated directly from the raw data for the purpose of subsequent demosaicing. It has been found that the influence of the mosaic layout tends to be more prominent as the number of bands increases, i.
Further, the authors show a particular MSFA pattern aimed at both spectral reconstruction and illuminant estimation, which is an instance generated by the binary-tree approach [ 41 ].
- The Bible and natural philosophy in Renaissance Italy : Jewish and Christian physicians in search of truth;
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- Stephen Westland.
- List of Accepted Papers.
To integrate one more band, i. One of them is a random pattern where each channel has equal probability of appearance. Another one is a uniform filter array similar to the one proposed in [ 48 ]. In theory, such uniform sampling patterns are not conducive to CS recovery, so it is experimented with for comparative purposes only.
Both of the two MSFAs are easily extendible to any number of channels. From this state-of-the-art, it appears that there are many possibilities to design an MSFA sensor. Intuitively, we can already understand that given the variety of design, data processing will be very dependent and the cost will be high while designing specific arrangements.
As indicated by the state-of-the-art, it is not difficult to find out that the design of MSFA is rather application-specific in terms of the number of bands, spectral transmittances, as well as the geometrical arrangement. It is therefore a must to keep the subsequent processing in mind and to consider all of these as a whole. Furthermore, the cost of MSFA would be acceptable only in the case of sufficient production volume. We present in Figure 7 a list of the spatial arrangements from the state-of-the-art, classified between ad hoc design or compliant with Miao et al.
Among other difficulties, the production and fabrication of MSFA present a major technical challenge. Sustained effort, therefore, went into realizing the MSFA. In [ 33 ], a production process is presented where a dichroic filter array can be produced on a wafer and later bonded to an image sensor for the purpose of spectroscopic imaging.
Dichroic filters, also known as interference filters, enable custom filters with spectrally sharp transitions, thus a better selectivity of color. A compact sensor with a lithographically patterned dichroic filter array is presented [ 60 — 63 ] where, at most, 10 wavelength bands can be incorporated. The optical filter consists of four narrow-band cells at , , and nm and is fabricated with traditional multi-film vacuum deposition and modern micro-lithography technologies [ 65 ].
Further, a means of evaluating the spectral interference between adjacent channels is also developed [ 66 ]. Further information and applications are detailed later in a series of articles concerning the detection of erythema and bruising, which are important for the prevention and diagnosis of pressure ulcers [ 67 — 70 ].
Color Image and Multispectral Image Denoising Using Block Diagonal Representation
A paper by Qi [ 71 ] shows an implementation using a conventional Aptina sensor, where due to the hard manufacturing process, each cell of the filter cover 16 pixels of the full raw image. They propose software processing in order to avoid two types of degradations: the misalignment between the filter and the sensor and the reconstruction of missing spectral components demosaicing.
The implementation results show some success and promise a real-time production of multispectral images that allows instant detection. Such a device makes possible in situ spectral measurement of NIR spectra ranging from nm to nm. Walls et al. The fabrication is suitable for direct integration onto CMOS image sensors in industrial foundries, and the cost and complexity is reduced in comparison with other solutions that vary the physical cavity length only. The MSFA is installed in a commercial handheld InGaAs camera coupled with a customized micro-lens array with telecentric imaging performance in each of the 16 channels.
Geelen et al.
Related Group-theoretical structure in multispectral color and image databases
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