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In this event, there may be a slight delay in shipping and possible variation in description. Our Day return guarantee still applies. Advanced Book Search Browse by Subject. Make an Offer. American Philosophical Practitioners Association, a , p. Sentence Completion Test SCT- 80 items is a psychological instrument of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity. When applying the test to a new client, the following existential issues may arise: meaning of life or lack of it, unclear professional identity, lack of professional identity or identity crisis, fear of death, fear of solitude and loneliness, issues linked to the freedom of choice and liberty.
Heart and Soul
Hypochondriac complaints are mainly linked to fear of death in a less obvious form, as fear of getting a terminal disease, such as cancer. Cancer phobia complaints in their extreme forms are disguised forms of fear of death, which can be dealt with in different manners, using cognitive behavioral techniques or having an existential approach via desensitization to death Yalom, , p. Apart from the obvious phrases or sentences completed that reveal thoughts and considerations on meaning, scope, professional identity, in the actual anamnestic interview the therapist is also expected to explore all the fears experienced by the client and especially the fear of death, the most invalidating of all.
Symptom Check-List SCL is a brief self-report psychometric instrument designated to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology, such as somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, etc. One of my research limitations was that psychological instruments were only used in order to assess the pre-therapy and post-therapy states of the person evaluated and treated. I have not conducted real philosophical counseling sessions, neither have I evaluated the outcome of any philosophical counseling session.
Although I am trained in Cognitive Behavior Psychotherapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, two of the few forms of evidence-based psychotherapies and also two of the therapies that use techniques similar to those used in philosophical counseling, nevertheless I regard the PC approach as a promising avenue for improving psychotherapy. Ethical questions and moral dilemmas are an important part of the therapeutic or philosophical counseling process that cannot be neglected.
The success of the therapeutic or counseling process depends on ensuring the best practices in the field either psychotherapy or philosophical counseling.
Existential issues are of utmost importance in both types of practices, since issues like meaning, scope, death, freedom and isolation are intrinsic to the human conditions and not psychiatric topics. There is also a multitude of ethical and moral dilemmas to be solved, both in therapy and philosophical counseling, and it is preferable for the counselor or the therapist to have an active role rather than a neutral position. Training recommendations are to be made to the philosophical counselors in order to be able to detect a serious psychiatric condition in a counselee and be able to recommend him or her to a psychiatrist, should this be the case.
Also, training recommendations in the ethical field are to be made to the psychotherapist, both in order to improve his or her understanding of ethical or moral dilemmas of the clients or counselees, and also in order to understand ethical challenges of his own field. The client selection issue is a complex one and it is more successfully done if proper training is provided.
Future research is needed in order to assess the importance of dilemmas and ethical issues in both practices. Also, future research is needed in order to investigate whether it is possible to achieve in philosophical counseling certain results, such as a superior levels of well-being or quality of life, as in psychotherapy. She has published papers and book reviews on clinical psychology, psychotherapy and psycho-practice politics. Ethical Issues in Philosophical Counseling.
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It is an intellectual construct that provides both a unified method of analysis for and a set of solutions to the problems of existence. The concept of a Weltanschauung has played an important role in the development of psychoanalysis, critical theory, and nineteenth- and twentieth-century hermeneutics.pierreducalvet.ca/155511.php
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Published online Aug Beatrice A. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 19; Accepted Jul Copyright notice. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years.
Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, philosophical counseling, moral dilemmas, existential issues, meaning of life. Introduction The main topics of this paper refer to the moral dilemmas and existential issues encountered both in psychotherapy and philosophical counseling. Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling or the Need for an Integrative Model of Counseling Psychotherapy and philosophical counseling as distinct domains have been developing in parallel for a few decades.
Selection of Clients, a Conundrum for Both Practices This paper investigates the attitudes of philosophical counselors and psychotherapists in private practice towards various factors concerning the selection of clients. In the initial interview or discussion, the client is usually asked first: What is the reason of approaching a particular professional a psychiatrist, a psychotherapist or a philosophical counselor? What are the objectives he or she would like to achieve in the sessions? Guidelines for referring the client to a psychiatrist: A psychiatric diagnosis of psychosis on Axis I ii schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, etc.
Scores higher than 30 on BDI-II-Beck Depression Inventory indicate a severe depression that should be addressed with the highest care; There is evidence of drug addiction or substance abuse, even though the client is undergoing treatment; The client suffers from other debilitating symptoms not mentioned above that prevent him or her to function normally and also desires fast symptom relief.
Guidelines for referring the client to a psychotherapist: Existence of symptomatology such as hypochondriac complaints, anxiety, phobia, conversive symptoms, somatization, depressive symptoms, that client desires to treat without medication, only via psychological methods; There is suspicion of a personality disorder antisocial, borderline, dependent, etc. Guidelines for referring the client to a philosophical counselor: The client does not suffer from a psychiatric condition and he is not currently prescribed psychiatric medication; In the particular case the patient had a previous psychiatric condition that is in full remission e.
Vignette — Case Study The client, a 27 years old man working in a corporate environment in a support role, comes into the therapy room with a set of complaints in the existential domain that would make him a good client for therapy, but also for philosophical counseling.
Also by Chris Mace
Existential Issues Encountered in Both Practices Many influential psychologists or psychiatrists coming from various psychotherapeutic traditions psychoanalytical, person-centered, rational emotive behavior , such as Jung, Rogers, Ellis, Frankl, Fromm and lately Yalom, moved toward philosophical or existential ways of counseling.
Most philosophical counselors and also CBT or REBT therapists have similar views regarding the process: They appeal to higher aspects of our being than our emotions, such as our reason, which in the long run is a stronger force to be considered in our life. Conclusions Ethical questions and moral dilemmas are an important part of the therapeutic or philosophical counseling process that cannot be neglected. Acknowledgments The author has no support to report.
References American Philosophical Practitioners Association. Code of Ethics. Three questionable assumptions of philosophical counseling.
International Journal of Philosophical Practice , 2 1 , 9— The role of humor in self-education: Handling moral conflicts with a smile. Is human cognition adaptive? Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 14 3 , — The Feeling Good handbook: Using the new mood therapy in everyday life. New York, NY: W. Philosophy with teeth: The be wedding of philosophical and psychological practices. International Journal of Philosophical Practice , 2 2. Theory and practice of logic-based therapy: Integrating critical thinking and philosophy into psychotherapy. Philosophical counseling as a philosophical dialogue: A situative view, and a discussion of the value of Wittgenstein's philosophical investigations.
Journal of the Korean Society of Philosophical Practice , 2 , 1— Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Carol. The practice of rational emotive behavior therapy 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer. Critical thinking in counselling and psychotherapy. London, United Kingdom: Sage. Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: A patient-level meta-analysis.
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