Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. Santiago: Instituto Chileno de Estudios Humanisticos. In Democracy in the Americas: Stopping the pendulum. Edited by Robert A. Washington, D. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman. In Economic crisis and policy choice: the politics of adjustment in the Third World. Edited by Joan M.
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Edited by Barbara Stallings and Robert Kaufman. In The breakdown of democratic regimes: Latin America. Edited by Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan. American Political Science Review 69— Civil-military relations and the Chilean political transition. Comparative Politics — New Brunswick: Transaction Books. In Democracy in developing countries: Latin America. American Sociological Review — In Statistical abstract of Latin America , vol. Edited by James W. Wilkie and David Lorey. In Transitions from authoritarian rule: Latin America. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead. PS: Political Science and Politics 20— Studies in Comparative International Development 64— American Political Science Review — The study of Latin American democracy.
Edited by Enrique A. I: The international financial system.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. International Studies Quarterly — In Transitions from authoritarian rule: Comparative perspectives. In reality, she posits that dependency can manifest itself differently in each state, thereby dictating a variety of foreign policy responses. As an alternative, she argues that foreign policies react to domestic determinants as well as to the hegemonic US.
He also suggests a shift in the focus of Latin American foreign policy as there has been a turn from national autonomy to regional autonomy, prompted by the increased internationalization of economic affairs actualized by such entities as Mercosur and NAFTA. Nations have come to the realization that forgoing an amount of national sovereignty and cooperating regionally may help them better attain goals of economic development.
One external consideration that weighs heavily on foreign policy decision making common to both works is that of economic liberalization. Hey points out, however, that within the neoliberal agenda the distinction between domestic and international economics is often blurred. Issues of democratization and leadership are also prevalent themes — the move toward democratization in the region and the effect of individual leaders personalism on policy behavior. For example, Ebel et al.
The preceding paragraphs exemplify an apparent weakness in the literature — that it lacks a unified theory of Latin American foreign policy and, thus, any organized claims about causal relationships Hey ; ; Mora Scholars have proposed a number of plausible and valuable explanations for foreign policy behavior, but the diverse collection of theories has not coalesced into a discernible mid-range theory for the region.
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A contingent of scholars argues the contrary. They believe that a theory of Latin American foreign policy is possible i. Hey argues that Latin American countries share multiple characteristics, such as a history of colonialism and export-dependent economies, that provide theoretical grounds for mid-range theory.
Drekonja-Kornat similarly points out that an overarching theory already exists as states in the region exhibit a general pattern of behaviors. Although states occasionally deviate from the norm, a common thread connects all their foreign policy behavior. In an attempt to correct for said observed weaknesses, Hey presents three theoretical building blocks that can lead to a theory of Latin American foreign policy.
The three dimensions upon which foreign policy differentiate are: 1 pro-core vs. The third centers on the economic and other dependencies on the core and the resulting latitude a nation has with its own foreign policy. In other words, politically oriented foreign policy is the result of a variety of factors, notwithstanding core—periphery relationships, but economic foreign policy is specifically the result of such relationships. Economic policy is less sensitive to various independent variables and is more sensitive to geopolitical concerns.
For example, political policy is affected by regime type, leadership, and domestic political context, to name just a few factors, whereas economic policy is dependent solely on the regional distribution of power. Apart from generalized theories to explain Latin American foreign policy, scholars have also investigated the most important variables affecting the formulation of foreign policy.
Although different scholars advocate a variety of variables spanning the levels of analysis spectrum individual, state, international, global in order to explain the behavior of Latin American states, there is a general consensus on the primacy of international factors i. However, the influence of individual leaders and domestic conditions are not discounted entirely. For example, although the primacy of presidential influence has been challenged in political science literature, Hey argues that in most of Latin America the president maintains control of foreign policy decisions.
Moreover, as compared to the other branches of government legislative and judicial , the executive has strong hold on policy formulation Atkins In terms of domestic variables, Mora writes that these are more variable, and suggests that the state of the domestic economy is a critical element.
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In fact, in Latin America the importance of political factors has now been replaced by the primacy of economic ones. Atkins also writes of the importance of domestic factors, including interest groups social elites, peasants campesinos , and specific commercial sectors, for example , public opinion, and the church.
gelatocottage.sg/includes/2020-04-23/393.php Although not unanimous, there is some consensus in the literature as to the two most important factors affecting Latin American foreign policy: political leadership and US hegemony Hey However, Hey suggests that, based on empirical research, the order of importance should be reversed, placing greater weight on systemic variables. Leaders play an important role in foreign policy making but they make their decisions within an international context and must behave according to contextual forces.
Other scholars warn against narrowing the list of all probable factors to one or two key determinants. However, he also concludes that systemic influences, in particular those emanating from the US, cannot be discounted, thereby acknowledging the prominence of international factors. Suggestions for future research in the field include focusing on the intersection between individual and systemic variables Mora and the development of integrated theory that incorporates the multiple explanatory variables that influence foreign policy formulation and considers their relative importance and the effects on each other Hey Adams, F.
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Burlington: Ashgate. Find this resource:. Arnson, C. Atkins, P. New York: Free Press 2nd edn. Boulder: Westview. Latin American Research Review 39 1 , — Bailey, N.
New York: Walker. Beckett, A. London: Faber and Faber.
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