Rick recognizes this more clearly and quickly than anyone else. From a pop theology perspective, the most interesting essays cover morality, meaning lessness , personhood, race and gender, and redemption. The most fitting conclusion, it seems, is to abandon all concerns of im morality because existence in this world requires amorality. While they may all be related, in varying ways, to sexual desire, they could just as easily all be meaningless. The Walking Dead provides no alternate explanation, and so its zombie apocalypse generically shares its origin point with Romero's.
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Kirkman also shares Lee and Romero's mid-century social attitudes, reproducing not only the Night of the Living Dead 's flesh-eating ghouls but the gender dynamics surrounding them. Romero depicts a near-catatonic female protagonist who literally can only watch as two males vie for group leadership. The film, observes Gregory A. Walker, "would seem to support certain sexist assumptions about female passivity, irrationality, and emotional vulnerability" Yan Basque draws a similar conclusion about the "essentialist view of gender roles" in The Walking Dead :. Kirkman, however, does not replicate Romero's attitude toward family.
Night of the Living Dead , observes Kendall R. Phillips, presents "a clear message about the failure of the domestic structure fashioned around the nuclear family" and how it has "lost its capacity to ground and protect us" 31, Kirkman instead champions the family, echoing Lee, the first comic book writer to introduce a family structure to a superhero lineup.
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Also like Lee, Kirkman is primarily concerned with transformation. The Fantastic Four undergo their transformations in a similarly extreme context. Ben receives his superhero name from Sue's inability even to describe his change: "He's turned into a—a—thing! The Walking Dead 's characters describe the transformed zombie population in identical terms. Morgan's son attacks Rick because he "thought you were one of those … things. We're never going to be normal," laments Lori; "Just look at us.
TRIUMPH OF THE WALKING DEAD – editor, James Lowder
All of us! I want to be Ben Grimm again! Novelist Colson Whitehead analyzes the zombie genre through the narrator of Zone One , who reflects that "It was the business of the plague to reveal our family members, friends and neighbors as the creatures they had always been. Superhero tropes operate on a similar principle of exaggeration, especially in cartoon form which, Scott McCloud argues, amplifies "by stripping down an image to its essential 'meaning'" In his story treatment written to Jack Kirby, Lee describes Ben as "a huge, surly unpleasant guy" Marvel Firsts , and the Thing both externalizes and amplifies those qualities.
Ben has transformed into an extreme version of his previous self, heightening traditional gender stereotypes. The Thing is super-strong and hyper-masculine, a trait generic to male superheroes, who, Mila Bongco observes, are commonly drawn with "muscles that would shame the most serious bodybuilder" Sue, in contrast, becomes Invisible Girl, a character Trina Robbins labels "a caricature of Victorian notions of the feminine" and Laura Mattoon D'Amore calls "the superhero equivalent of the suburban housewife" D'Amore.
While in the clutches of a giant monster on the cover of her debut issue, she shouts: "I—I can't turn invisible fast enough!! Where male bodies expand—into rock or flame or elastic flesh—transformative radiation instead reduces female bodies. The first female body in The Walking Dead is similarly lessened. Though Moore renders the zombified bicyclist fleshless and organless, she retains, like Sue, her long and presumably blonde hair, her marker of femininity. Women's bodies are physically reduced while remaining figuratively maternal, the feminine quality Lee and Kirby champion.
While reading fan letters, Sue sobs: "A number of readers have said that I don't contribute enough to you … you'd be better off without me! Reed breaks the fourth wall to scold us: "See this bust of Abe Lincoln? Remember his famous remark about his mother? The time he said that all that he was—all that he ever hoped to be—he owed to her? Kirkman and Moore follow the same model, reducing women's roles to traditional domestic tasks. Short-haired Donna complains: "I just don't understand why we're the ones doing laundry while they go off and hunt.
When things go back to normal I wonder if we'll still be allowed to vote. Jennifer Smith cites it as an example of "issues of gender inequality" being "present, questioned within the text, and then summarily dismissed" Smith , and Kay Steiger calls it "unsettlingly, perhaps even distastefully, retro" Lee and Kirby's Sue, however, is not retro but a direct product of the s social norms that immediately influenced her creators. Like Lori, Sue is clothes-focused. In their third issue, she tells her teammates: "Never mind those monsters, boys!
Look what I've got! Alan Moore, recalling reading Fantastic Four No.
Despite gaining superpowers and facing enemies every issue, she proves an incompetent fighter who is routinely captured—as the first cover establishes. Twelve issues later her skills have not improved. After the team is shown a picture of the Hulk, Reed shouts: "Sue! Where is she? Forgive me! The—the sight of that monster unnerved me so that I lost control of my visibility power! If "visibility" is her power, then Sue is naturally invisible and so must struggle to be seen at all.
Lori, despite the constant threat of zombie attack, also remains a useless fighter: "I can't shoot a gun. Her pre-pubescent son, however, shoots expertly. Kirkman seems to agree with Ben's defense of Sue: "If you readers wanna see women fightin' all the time, then go see lady wrestlers!
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Both narratives present fighting as a masculine activity. The two groups of males—Reed, Ben, and Johnny; and Rick, Shane, and Carl—excel at combating monsters, the organizing principle behind both the superhero and zombie genres. All men, however, are not equal experts at violence. Ben, an "ex-war hero," shouts: "I'm always ready!!
Next time I get within grabbing distance of that guy, I'll make mincemeat of him!pierreducalvet.ca/88579.php
Triumph of the Walking Dead
Reed, though a skilled fighter against a range of monsters and villains, also prevents violence, restraining Ben and, in the first demonstration of his powers, saving Johnny from a fatal fall Lee Kirkman and Moore follow Lee and Kirby's formula, foiling their lead males by differentiating their relative levels of violence. Moore exaggerates Shane's hulking width and Rick's skeletal thinness—visually echoing Kirby's rendering of the preternaturally wide Thing and stretched Mr. Shane's skill as a marksman is also presented in contrast to Rick, who admits he is "nowhere near as good.
When finally reunited with his family, he is shaking: "I've been so worried about finding you and Carl … and getting here in one piece … I haven't had time to be scared. The first page of issue one demonstrates Reed's authority as he calls the team: "It is the first time I have found it necessary to give the signal! Rick, also on his first page, assesses threats and gives orders too: "We're sitting ducks behind this car. Lori and her son, Carl, like Sue and her adolescent brother, Johnny, are untrained and so unnecessary in the adventures of the two primary males. Before their space launch, Reed argues: "Susan, Ben and I know what we're doing … but you and Johnny …" She and Johnny, however, insist on "taggin' along" Lee Kirkman and Moore seem to follow Reed's urging and begin The Walking Dead with only their two male cops.
In both pre-transformation situations, the male partners are defending their homes against invaders.
Rick and Shane are caught in a highway shoot out with "run-off" from another county's new prison. Both sets of partners are also isolated in their efforts, Rick and Shane because "back-up is more than ten miles away," Reed and Ben because they sneak past soldiers to launch their rocket: "No time to wait for official clearance! The result is the same: transformative injury. The Fantastic Four's bullet-shaped ship crashes from radiation exposure, and Rick is shot.
The first is the explicit cause of change: "It's those rays! Those terrible cosmic rays! And in terms of sequential effect, the bullet that strikes Rick in the last panel of page one also triggers the zombie apocalypse. Page two is a single, borderless panel showing Rick waking, his first conscious moment since injured. The entire zombie apocalypse falls into the between-page gutter.
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Where cosmic ray injury externalizes personality traits, Rick's internal injury parallels transformation at a global scale. These transformations also heighten interpersonal conflicts. Although the Fantastic Four has been described as a family unit, it begins with only three members. Ben begins outside of the family unit and wishes to enter it by replacing Reed. Overview All zombies are created equal. All zombie stories are not. About the Author James Lowder has worked extensively on both sides of the editorial blotter.
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